Biotechnology: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Biotechnology is simply the use of living organisms with means of technology to improve the quality of life of humans.
Biotechnology is not an uncommon word these days. But how broad and comprehensive field biotechnology is?
Biotechnology uses the study and techniques of many fields like chemistry, informatics, engineering, genetics, biology, molecular biology, mathematics, structural anatomy, statistics, etc. Biotechnology is not a new field, it is an ancient field that has progressed, developed, and evolved with time. One thing which we are sure of is that it will continue its development and growth in many more fields as well as.
There is a long chronological history of how biotechnology developed and by whom, but ultimately its how we utilize it today is the important thing.
Stages of biotechnology
If we look at it like that we can say biotechnology can be regarded as follow classification:
Ancient biotechnology (pre-1800) does not have that much data on it and there is just speculation that with man’s every need, like food, animals, and preservation of food arose, a new form of biotechnology developed.
Classical biotechnology was used by people not completely knowing the science behind it.
Different methods and techniques were used to get different foods and preserve them unaware of the process.
Fermentation was used to get bread, curd, yogurt, cheese, beer, wine, etc.
Modern biotechnology deals with manipulations and altercations of the genetics of microorganisms also known as DNA technology. Many discoveries like operons, gene cloning, monoclonal antibodies, polymerase chain reaction, genetically modified organisms (GMO’S), bioremediation, genome projects, etc.
Biotechnology as a field uses many aspects of science and technology and if one takes formal education in any type of biotechnology it requires learning of multiple disciplines in context to biotechnology.
- Biomedical engineering
- Biomechanical engineering
- Biochemical engineering
- Mechanics and Mechatronics engineering
- Computer science
- Biosystem engineering
- Cell biology
- Electrical and computer engineering
- Environmental engineering
- Genetic engineering
- Human factors
- Immune engineering
And the list is endless because simply biotechnology is an endless field with innumerable possibilities.
4 main areas of application of biotechnology
- Health care
- Crop production and agriculture
Rest everything are all subsidiaries of these sectors only.
BLal biotechnological firms are one of the best places to pursue your career in biotechnology or your education.
Types of biotechnology
- Green /Agricultural Biotechnology Deals with plants and techniques to improve the nutritional value, yield, herbicide, resistance to pesticides, etc. biotechnology is used to find ways of profitable and environmental friendly farming.
- Blue/Aquatic Biotechnology
Biotechnology is used to study marine animals, marine eco-system, increasing seafood supply, or drug development, etc.
- Black biotechnology
This type of biotechnology deals with extracting energy from already rich energy sources.
- Red/Health Biotechnology
Deals with developing methods, drugs, etc to improve the health of humans. Every new development of a new treatment, medicine, drug antibiotic, antibodies, etc., all fall under t his category. Biotechnology is the most powerful tool available for a cure, treatment, and diagnosis of many lethal diseases.
- White/industrial biotechnology
In industrial biotechnology living organisms and enzymes are used to synthesize products to a desired result or quality. The benefits are environment-friendly, degradable, less waste-producing, fewer resource input industries.
Chemical, textile, health care many sectors use white biotechnology
- Yellow /food biotechnology
Nutrition science is the popularly used term for yellow biotechnology. Food biotechnology involves the production of economical, nutritious, and easy to produce edibles. Recent research that has gain attention is to research low saturated fat cooking oils.
- Gold biotechnology/bioinformatics
Bioinformatics is the study of the organization of biological information from DNA. How to obtain, store, use, analyze this information comes under grey biotechnology?
- Grey biotechnology
The purpose of grey biotechnology is the restoration and treatment of contaminated environmental systems and habitats.
Biotechnology has not left a single stone untouched. It has touched every aspect of human life and will continue to do so with new vigor. People tend to show concern about the excessive use of biotechnology and how it can adversely affect the environment.
But humans can eliminate this possibility by conscious and smart use of biotechnology.