There is NO ESCAPE from ESKAPE but to FIGHT
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a global health concern, threatening global progress in various aspects. The causative microbes of this emerging resistance include bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, which have spread across the world in a very short duration causing multidrug pan-resistance and have been termed as "superbugs". The spread of this antimicrobial resistance can be attributed to a variety of factors, including misuse and/or overuse of drugs, lack of access to clean water, sanitation or hygiene (WASH) for humans and animals, poor infection control in health care facilities, lack of awareness and knowledge, and many more. ESKAPE pathogens are a group of multidrug-resistant bacteria that are responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. The term ESKAPE stands for Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species. These pathogens are responsible for a wide range of infections, including bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. The current status of ESKAPE pathogens is concerning, as these bacteria continue to develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. This makes them increasingly difficult to treat, and can lead to prolonged hospital stays, higher healthcare costs, and increased mortality rates. The World Health Organization has identified ESKAPE pathogens as “Top priority pathogens” for research and development of new antibiotics. The pipeline for new antibiotics has been relatively dry in recent years, with few new drugs being developed to combat these resistant bacteria.
The association between hospital acquired infections and resistant bacteria is placing an additional burden on healthcare systems and driving up expenses globally. In line with the same, multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) "ESKAPE pathogens," account for 15.5 percent of all hospital acquired infections have evolved as a result of increased antibiotic use, self-medication, and infection exposure in hospitals (HAIs). The main goal is to determine the current status of spread of these pathogens and their role in community and healthcare acquired infections in the current scenario with special emphasis on economic burden. Identification of pathogen spread and speculation of the infectivity burden of these pathogens is another critical objective. This has led to calls for increased funding and incentives for antibiotic research and development. Multiple initiatives have been undertaken to keep a check on this emerging resistance GLASS program (Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System), Antimicrobial Resistance Multi Partner Trust Fund (AMR MPTF), the Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership (GARDP), Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (GAP), etc. However, owing to the wide variety of reasons for this antimicrobial resistance spread, it is of utmost importance to focus on the collaborative action of different sectors involving human health, environmental sources, plant and animal health, food production, etc. to combat the same leading to the development of “One Health Approach”.
Read this informative blog post on Eskape pathogens- one of the main causes of nosocomial infections throughout the world, by Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology.